This group is dedicated to contribute to the health, animal production, and conservation through research and technological development. Sage is an interdisciplinary group with high level of internationalization, high scientific productivity and capacity for transfer comprising about 40 researchers from excellence in biotechnology, reproduction, health, and related fields.
Each year, wise man increases his collaborations with companies in the pharmaceutical/veterinary and hunting/livestock sectors, generating new patents and transfer of knowledge. Those projects today include biotechnology reproductive, control health and development of vaccines, and research in diseases emerging.
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1. ecology of disease in natural populations
The pathogens are part of ecosystems, and diseases contribute to the natural regulation of animal populations in the same way that the availability of resources or predation. Wildlife access facilitates the study of natural models of infection, without anthropogenic interference. Their analysis allows to know basic aspects of the relationship patogeno-hospedador at individual and population levels. Examples of pathogens and hosts investigated in this line include pwn Hart Elaphostrongylus cervi, community Mycobacteria of ungulates of the Doñana National Park, or avian influenza viruses in waterfowl in the wetlands La Mancha.
2 Cryopreservation of semen and artificial insemination in ungulates wild
Studies aimed at the improvement of different semen freezing protocols ungulate hunting. We study the different moments and phases of the technique of freezing, as well as the improvement of the formulation of the means of freezing. We are also analyzing variation factors which may influence the process of freezing resistance in different species, paying special interest to levels of inbreeding of the semen donor males.
3. health surveillance of wildlife
A feature of the wildlife is its diversity, ubiquity and relative existing ignorance regarding his actual role in the maintenance of diseases of importance in animal health or public health. IREC, as national and international reference centre in the field of shared diseases, develop basic and applied research in health surveillance, trying to combine the efforts of surveillance active about relevant diseases as the Aujeszky brucellosis, with the discovery of emerging pathogens such as for example virus hepatitis E in deer or wild boar. This activity is carried out in close collaboration with the different administrations and regional, national and international bodies.
4 epidemiology and control of vector-borne diseases
Vector-borne diseases represent a particularly complex situation in relation to its study and control, now that patogeno-hospedador interactions are added patogeno-vector interactions and vector-hospedador, and given that ecology host is added the ecology of the vector. Some vector-borne diseases are in geographic expansion and have acquired greater importance in recent years. Some examples studied in Sage include blue tongue, an orbivirus genus Culicoides Diptera-borne and that affects domestic and wild ruminants and the Nile fever and other flavivirus transmitted by mosquitoes mosquitoes and affecting birds, equidae and occasionally people. Diseases transmitted by ticks studied in this line include the anaplasmosis, Lyme disease or rickettsiosis, among others. This research is carried out in collaboration with the line of research in genomics functional and proteomics.
5 epidemiology and control of the microbacteriosis
For man and animal pathogenic Mycobacteria are intracellular slow growing organisms belonging to the Mycobacterium complex avium, as for example M. avium paratuberculosis, and the complex of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, for example M. bovis. Some wild, wild boar, deer and Badger mammals, have a key role as wild reservoirs of Mycobacteria of importance in public health and animal health. Our group develops research in epidemiology, trying to identify risk factors, and control of the mycobacteriosis, including for example the study of improvements in biosafety or the development of vaccines and new techniques for Administration oral under field conditions. This research is carried out in collaboration with many national and international groups, and in close harmony with the line of research in genomics functional and Proteomics of Sage.
1. ENETWILD. Wildlife: collect and share data on wildlife populations, agents transmitters of animal diseases.
It is a project of the European's food safety authority (EFSA) whose main objective is to collect information on the geographical distribution, abundance and population structure of selected wildlife species relevant to the livestock and human health.
The specific objectives of ENETWILD are:
Compile existing data published or unpublished on the geographical distribution and abundance of wildlife hosts selected, validate them and add them in a manner harmonized in a common database.
Promote and coordinate the generation of new data on distribution and abundance of selected wildlife species, and shaping them, to fill the gaps identified in the objective-1.
Further improve the wildlife professional network to support data collection activities required in the objectives 1 and 2:
- Join the existing network to other groups / networks active in the area of the wild population monitoring European or international.
- Strengthen collaboration on comprehensive monitoring activities of wildlife in Europe, improving the European network among specialists in population and health.
Objectives that ENETWILD will develop during the next few years are specifically focused on wild boar.
2. depression by consanguinity of the fertility of the manchega sheep breed black variety. Study of the effects associated with changes in sperm structure and function.
This is a project funded by the INRA and coordinated with the CERSYRA. This project will study the causes sperm level of reduction of fertility in breeds of sheep with high consanguinity. This advantageous aspects of sperm mobility and Morphometry and distribution of subpopulations based on these characteristics will be studied.
3 Sentinel or vector? The role of the Stork (Ciconia ciconia) in the epidemiology of the virus influenza avian
White storks are migratory and connect different habitats that can be the source and risk areas for the transmission of LPAIV into livestock. In this project we study the exposure of white storks to LPAIV and other pathogens of interest for livestock or humans such as West Nile virus. At the same time, using satellite transmitters and ring lectures from tagged storks we investigate the way storks connect different habitats and the potential effect that the infection by LPAIV or other pathogens has on their behaviour.
This project is funded by the national agricultural research institute (INIA, project reference RTA2011-0111-C03-02).
4. Factores de riesgo y epidemiología espacio-temporal de la tuberculosis en bovino extensivo: un modelo para el control de la enfermedad
The epidemiology of TB in Doñana National Park (DNP) is spatially structured in cattle and wildlife, although neither the main determinants of this pattern are known. We aim (i) to identify the factors determining the spatio-temporal pattern of persistence and disease transmission of TB, (ii) the effect of wild boar population reduction on disease prevalence in cattle, (iii) to describe the inter and intra-specific interactions associated to TB transmission risks in cattle, and (iv) to evaluate preventive managements able to reduce direct /indirect, intra/interspecific contact rates at risk points.
Project number: AGL2010-20730-C02-01. Financed by: Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación. Participants: UCLM - Universidad de Sevilla
5. structure of the contacts and risk of disease transmission between cattle and hoofed animals wild
The degree of interaction between domestic and wildlife determine the transmission and subsequently the sharing of pathogens. Our general objetives are (i) to describe and quantify the local patterns of contacts (connectivity among individuals) between domestic livestock and wild ungulates in an area from South Central Spain, for which we will use proximity contact data loggers, a recently developed technology able to record the contacts between and within livestock and wild ungulates. (ii) To determine the individuals or groups that present the highest risk for disease transmission within and between species. (iii) To evidence the factors (including habitat use) that determines the local pattern of contacts between livestock and wild ungulates. (iv) Recommending sanitary and husbandry practices in order to reduce disease transmission at the livestock-wildlife interface.
6. Developing new algorithms for the identification of vector protective antigens
This research focuses on the development of new algorithms to use systems biology data for the identification of vector protective antigens. These results will be used for the development of vaccines for the control of vector infestations.
7. Tick and Mite Genomes Consortium. Genome analysis of Major Tick and Mite Vectors of Human Pathogens
Here we propose immediate sequencing of the mite vector of scrub typhus, Leptotrombidium deliense, and additional sequencing of . to expand genomic resources for this group. These projects will provide the anchor for additional sampling of species at increasing evolutionary distance. We also identify six members of the Ixodida (Dermacentor variabilis, Amblyomma americanum, i. pacificus, i. ricinus, i. persulcatus and Ornithodoros turicata) that are considered high priority sequencing targets by the tick and mite research communities.
1 DRAFT ADDITIVE (FEDER-INNTERCONECTA 2015)
Objective: the development of new methods of reproductive control, applicable to hunting farms cervunas and small ruminants intends to improve the production and the sustainability of the same, minimizing the reproductive seasonality and obtaining dairy products with added value.
Results: the final product allows vehicular certain active principles for oral intake, effective deseasonalizing reproduction to increase livestock production. In addition, it allows a milk product enriched with the consequent benefit to human health.
Meadow of the Llanos SL
Group wise. University of Castilla - La ManchaProject funded by the CDTI and FEDER
2. development of an efficient protocol for the production of embryos from deer by means of in vitro fertilization: sperm sexing application
The overall objective of this project is to develop a protocol suitable for in vitro fertilization in deer and adapt the use of samples of semen sexing in this species. So, we propose the development of the following specific objectives:
- Study the ideal time to train sperm and develop defined media for training;
- To determine the effect of oxygen stress during maturation and fertilization in vitro of oocytes on the embryonic development;
- Estimate the effect of the absence or presence and the optimal timing of addition of fetal bovine serum on the in vitro culture of embryos on embryo development;
- Study the conditions and optimal training time for semen sexing and semen sexing in IVF optimal concentration.
Project number: AGL2013-48421-R. Financed by: Ministry of economy and competitiveness. Participants: UCLM.
3. development of efficient protocols for the conservation of semen from the deer's face to his employment in new reproductive biotechnologies: sex preselection
This project will study the characteristics of the X sperm and and and will be developed specific to each type of sperm freezing thinners.
This is a project funded by the MINECO PN.
4. development of commercial solvents for various biotechnological processes applied to deer semen: freezing, refrigeration and sexing
The objective of this project is to develop thinner defined to keep the sperm of deer in a liquid state for several days before sexarlos. In addition, we will study other sperm freezing as vitrification techniques.
5 TBjabavac - TB control in the native Eurasian wild boar by oral vaccination
This is a project coordinated by Sage-IREC, with two key academic partners in Madrid (Univ. Complutense-VISAVET; www.vigilanciasanitaria.es) and Derio (NEIKER; www.neiker.net), and one external partner (Univ. York, UK).
Project description: This is a Plan Nacional I D i grant with reference number AGL2011-30041. It lasts from January 2012 to December 2014. Wildlife vaccination is a valuable alternative or complementary tool in TB control. The native Eurasian wild boar is regarded as a key TB reservoir in Spain and Portugal. This project aims to contribute to basic knowledge on wild boar response to vaccination and infection. Results derived from this research will benefit TB control in Spain and other regions where wild boar and feral pig act as TB reservoirs, and the control of other diseases where baiting is an option.
6. ANTIGONE – ANTIcipating the Global Onset of Novel Epidemics
ANTIGONE is a project coordinated by Prof. Thijs Kuiken of the Viroscience lab of Erasmus MC. The consortium is composed of 14 research groups from 7 European Member States. SaBioIREC has an active participation across the proyect, often in close collaboration with other Spanish gropus such as VISAVET and Univ. Zaragoza. Find the details in the project link: http://www.antigonefp7.eu
Project description: ANTIGONE is a Large Scale Integrating Project, funded by the European Commission’s FP7 program under contract number 278976. The consortium collaborates in advancing our knowledge of viruses and bacteria from animals. In particular, ANTIGONE focuses on the question: “why do some viruses and bacteria that come from animals cause epidemics in humans, whilst others do not?” SaBio-IREC participates with primary research and horizontal actions, with emphasis on vector-borne diseases, Mycobacterium bovis and Escherichia coli. ANTIGONE will run from November 2011 to November 2016.
7. APHAEA – Harmonised Approaches in monitoring wildlife Population Health, And Ecology and Abundance
This grant is coordinated by SaBio-IREC and the consortium includes eight European partner institutes and close to 20 external partners. Find the details in http://www.aphaea.eu/partners
Project description: This EMIDA ERA-NET (coordination of European Research on Emerging and Major Infectious Diseases of production Animals) (http://www.emida-era.net) project aims at establishing a European wildlife disease surveillance network that is capable of providing reliable estimates of abundance of wildlife species and of pathogen distribution in key wildlife species. It will contribute to the development, implementation and encouragement of the use of harmonized procedures for wildlife population abundance estimation, sampling and diagnosis, both at national and European levels, in order to improve wildlife health surveillance in general. Link: http://www.aphaea.eu
Resultados de Investigación
1. Caracterización de las interacciones garrapata-hospedador-patógeno: conflicto y cooperación
Ticks are ectoparasites of arthropods that feed on blood and transmit pathogens that are a growing burden for human and animal health worldwide. Ticks transmit bacteria, parasites and viruses and it is considered only in second place, after the mosquitoes, as vectors of human diseases and the first as vectors of diseases for animals. One of these pathogens is the intracellular bacteria Anaplasma phagocytophilummainly transmitted by ticks of the genus Ixodescausal agent of equine and canine granulocytic anaplasmosis, (AGH) human granulocytic anaplasmosis, and fever transmitted by ticks in ruminants. This pathogen is a good model because a recent analysis of the molecular interactions between ticks Ixodes, A. phagocytophilum, and the host cells showed harmful effects caused by ticks as the pathogens but also revealed the mutual beneficial effects of the molecular interactions garrapata-hospedador - pathogen. These comments clarify the mechanisms of CoEvolution by which pathogens manipulate the protective response of ticks to facilitate the infection while at the same time preserving its vector ability and power to ensure the survival of pathogens and ticks. The characterization of the conflict and mutual beneficial effects on interactions garrapata-hospedador - pathogen will help in the identification of new targets for the control of diseases transmitted by ticks.
of the source, j., Villar, M., Cabezas-Cruz, a., Sargeant, a., Ayllon, N., Alberdi, p. (2016). Tick-Host-Pathogen Interactions: Conflict and Cooperation. PLoS Pathog 12 (4): e1005488. doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1005488.
2. temporal trend of tuberculosis (TB) in ungulates wild Mediterranean Spain
Tuberculosis (TB), a disease caused by infection with the chronic Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, is endemic in wild boar and red deer in south-central Spain. Understanding the temporal dynamics of this chronic infection requires long time series data collection over large areas. SaBio researchers identified the determinants of TB prevalence and severity in both species in Ciudad Real province, Spain. Study variables included management, population dynamics, and a range of geographical and climatological factors. The prevalence of TB in wild boar increased from 50% to 63% since the study commenced. This may be due to an increased hunting bag (a proxy for population abundance), which was correlated with TB infection rates. Low rainfall (a stochastic factor) was associated with higher individual risk of TB presence and progression, resulting in an increased proportion of severe cases of wild boar TB in dry years. This was probably a result of increased food restriction leading to a higher susceptibility to TB. In contrast, red deer TB showed an apparent stable trend. Hunting management, characterized by fencing, was associated with a higher risk of TB in both wild boar and red deer, suggesting that intensive hunting management may have contributed to exacerbated TB figures. Our findings on TB dynamics are fundamental for assessing the impact of future disease-control actions (e.g. field vaccination). Moreover, such control plans must operate in the long term and cover large areas.
Wild boar TB prevalence (upper panel, solid line) and population trend (upper panel, grey line) in Montes de Toledo, Spain, between 2000 and 2012.
Vicente, J., Barasona, J.A., Acevedo, P., Ruiz-Fons, J.F, Boadella, M., Diez-Delgado, I., Beltran-Beck, B., González-Barrio, D., Queirós, J., de la Fuente, J., Gortazar, C. 2013. Temporal trend of tuberculosis in wild ungulates from Mediterranean Spain. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases 60 (Suppl. 1): 92-103.
3. Síndrome respiratorio del Oriente medio (MERS): ¿Un Nuevo reto para los veterinarios?
The emergence of Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) in September 2012, a respiratory infection caused by MERS coronavirus (CoV), a betacoronavirus, is of concern for the global health community. Most reported cases occurred in the Middle East, mainly in Saudi Arabia and Jordan. A few imported cases have been recorded in Europe. MERS CoV has caused globally a total of 78 deaths out of 182 laboratory-confirmed human infections (03-Feb 2014). This infection is likely of zoonotic origin and thus of relevance for the veterinary sector. Betacoronaviruses have their origin in bats, and many of them have bats as definitive hosts. This is the case for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and some related bat coronaviruses recently found in Europe. MERS-CoV is comparable to SARS-CoV in several aspects. MERS-CoV is easily cultured in bat-derived cell lines, suggesting a similar origin. The likelihood of contact between people and bats is low, except for cave explorers and specific risk groups. SARSCoV became transmitted to people through civets (carnivores that are bred for human consumption in Southeast Asia). How civets got the virus from bats is unknown. It is presently not known if there is an intermediate host for MERS equivalent to the civets for SARS. However, a very recent study has shown that 100% of 50 camel sera from Oman had specific antibodies against MERS-CoV spike protein. Moreover, 15 of 105 (14%) camels from western Africa also showed antibodies against the virus. Importantly, the serological tests used were specific and did not cross-react with other coronaviruses. Although not surprising, fairly limited epidemiological investigations indicated that some patients with MERS had contact with camels, and probably many had consumed camel meat. In such an emerging scenario, scientists from several institutions are struggling to collect more material, particularly from Middle East countries with reported human cases, but also from other regions with overlap between bats and camels. Although the zoonotic links are still unclear, we expect MERS to become relevant for the veterinary community and an interesting case study regarding disease emergence at the wildlife-livestock-human interface.
Based on the apparent widespread nature of the infection in the analyzed Middle East camels, together with the usual close contact of these animals with humans in that geographic area (food source, markets, and races), it has been suggested that camels might play a role as a potential intermediate host for MERS.
Gortazar C., Segalés J. (2013). Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) Coronavirus: A New Challenge for Veterinarians? Veterinary Pathology 50: 954-955.
Reusken CBEM, Haagmans BL, Müller MA, Gutierrez C, Godeke G-J, Meyer B, Muth D, Raj VS, Smits-De Vries L, Corman VM, Drexler JF, Smits SL, El Tahir YE, De Sousa R, van Beek J, Nowotny N, van Maanen K, Hidalgo-Hermoso E, Bosch BJ, Rottier P, Osterhaus A , Gortázar-Schmidt C, Drosten C, Koopmans MPG (2013). Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus neutralizing serum antibodies in dromedary camels: a comparative serological study. The Lancet Infectious Diseases 13: 859-866.
4. Medidas simples de exclusión previenen la transmission indirecta en la confluencia ganado-fauna
Tuberculosis (TB) is endemic in Eurasian wild boar and red deer in south central Spain, where evidence suggests transmission to domestic cattle. Known risk factors for TB at the interface between livestock and wild ungulate species include density and spatial overlap, particularly around waterholes during summer. We evaluated the effectiveness of selective exclusion measures for reducing direct and indirect interaction between extensive beef cattle and wild ungulates at waterholes as an alternative for the integrated control of TB. We first monitored 6 water points (WP) with infrared-triggered cameras at a TB positive cattle farm to quantify interactions. We then assigned 3 WP to be“cattle-only” and 3 to be “wildlife-only”. Cattle-only WP were surrounded with a wildlife proof fence (2.5 m high) and an original design of cattle-specific gate. Wildlife-only WP were surrounded by a fence that wild ungulates could breach but cattle could not (1.2 m high). Red deer, roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) and wild boar easily jumped or undercrossed this fence. Wildlife-only fences were 100% effective in preventing cattle access to WP and did not impede wildlife use. Many cows learned to operate the cattle-specific gate quickly and others followed and learned from them. Within 2 weeks, around 70% of cows actively entered and exited through the cattle-specific gate. We demonstrate how simple, low cost fencing strategies can serve as biosecurity measures to substantially reduce direct and indirect contact between cattle and wild ungulates, serving to reduce the potential for TB transmission. Our designs can be used in the context of integral plans to mitigate disease transmission between cattle and wildlife, and have potential for protecting or segregating the use of a variety of resources in different contexts.
A cattle bump gate (upper panel) and the TB control skin test results in the study farm and in the control farms from the same veterinary unit. Skin test reactors diminished after setting up selective fences on the study farm, and not in the controls.
Barasona, J.A., VerCauteren, K.C., Saklou, N., Gortazar, C., Vicente, J. (2013). Effectiveness of cattle operated bump gates and exclusion fences in preventing ungulate multi-host sanitary interaction. Preventive Veterinary Medicine 111: 42-50.
5. Nuevos conocimientos sobre la epidemiología molecular de los patógenos transmitidos por garrapatas
The number of tick-borne pathogens (TBP) that cause diseases in humans and animals is rapidly increasing. Thus, it is important to characterize TBP present in different areas and hosts for epidemiological studies and proper diagnosis of possible tick-borne diseases.
Rickettsia species in questing ticks collected in central Spain.
(A) Study area with 20 collection sites where ticks were found (black dots) out of the 39 sites surveyed (white and black dots). (B) Multilocus sequence analysis of Rickettsia spp. Abbreviations: Rc, R. conorii; Ra, R. africae; Rr, (R). rickettsii; Rs, R. slovaca; Rm, R. massiliae; Rsm, R. sibirica subsp. mongolitimonae; R. raoultii; Rsang, R. sanguineus; Rtur, R. turanicus; Rpus, R. pusillus; Dmar, D. marginatus; Hmar, H. marginatum. Figure from Fernández de Mera et al. Emerging Infectious Diseases 2013, 19: 1163-1165.
Fernández de Mera, I.G., Ruiz-Fons, F., de la Fuente, G., Mangold, A.J., Gortázar, C., de la Fuente, J. 2013. Spotted Fever Group Rickettsiae in questing ticks, central Spain. Emerging Infectious Diseases 19: 1163-1165.
Cabezas-Cruz, A., Passos, L.M.F., Lis, K., Kenneil, R., Valdés, J.J., Ferrolho, J., Tonk, M., Pohl, A.E., Grubhoffer, L., Zweygarth, E., Shkap, V., Ribeiro, M.F.B., Estrada-Peña, A., Kocan, K.M., de la Fuente, J. 2013. Functional and immunological relevance of Anaplasma marginale major surface protein 1a sequence and structural analysis. PLoS ONE 8(6): e65243.
Estrada-Peña, A., Ruiz-Fons, F., Acevedo, P., Gortazar, C., de la Fuente, J. 2013. Factors driving the circulation and possible expansion of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in the western Palearctic. Journal of Applied Microbiology 114: 278-286.
Hornok, S., Csörgő, T., de la Fuente, J., Gyuranecz, M., Privigyei, C., Meli, M., Kreizinger, Z., Tánczos, B., Gönczi, E., Fernández de Mera, I.G., Farkas, R., Hofmann-Lehmann, R. 2013. Synanthropic birds associated with high prevalence of tick-borne rickettsiae and with the first detection of Rickettsia aeschlimannii in Hungary. Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases 13: 77-83.
Bonnet, S., de la Fuente, J., Nicollet, P., Liu, X., Madani, N., Blanchard, B., Maingourd, C., Alongi, A., Torina, A., Fernández de Mera, I.G., Vicente, J., George, J-C., Vayssier-Taussat, M., Joncour, G. 2013. Prevalence of tick-borne pathogens in adult Dermacentor spp. ticks from nine collection sites in France. Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases 13: 226-236.
Hornok, S., Dénes, B., Meli, M.L., Tánczos, B., Fekete, L., Gyuranecz, M., de la Fuente, J., Fernández de Mera, I.G., Farkas, R., Hofmann-Lehmann, R. 2013. Non-pet dogs as synanthropic reservoirs of tick-borne and zoonotic bacteria. Veterinary Microbiology 167: 700-703.
6. Regulación recíproca de la NF-kB (Relish) y la Subolesina en la garrapata Ixodes scapularis
The results presented here provide evidence that Subolesin/akirin are evolutionarily conserved at several levels (primary sequence, gene organization and function), thus supporting their crucial biological function in metazoans. These results showed that NF-kB (Relish) is involved in the regulation of Subolesin expression in ticks, suggesting that as in other organisms, different NF-kB integral subunits and/or unknown interacting proteins regulate the specificity of the NF-kB-mediated gene expression. These results suggested a regulatory network involving cross-regulation between NF-kB (Relish) and Subolesin and Subolesin auto-regulation with possible implications in tick immune response to bacterial infection. These results advance our understanding of gene organization and regulation in . and have important implications for arthropod vectors genetics and immunology highlighting the possible role of NF-kB and Subolesin/Akirin in vector-pathogen interactions and for designing new strategies for the control of vector infestations and pathogen transmission.
Model for Subolesin regulation in ticks.
(A) Proposed model for NF-kB/Relish(REL) and Subolesin (SUB) regulation of gene expression in ticks. The mechanisms resulting in NF-kB/Subolesin activation and/or increased protein levels are still unknown. NF-kB/REL directly regulates the expression of SUB and other genes. SUB interacts with NF-kB/REL subunits through unknown auxiliary proteins and may be involved in the regulation of NF-kB/REL expression and the regulation of NF-kB/REL-independent gene expression in ticks. (B) Proposed regulatory network that includes cross-regulation between NF-kB/REL and Subolesin and Subolesin auto-regulation.
Naranjo, N., Ayllón, N., Pérez de la Lastra, J.M., Galindo, R.C., Kocan, K.M., Blouin, E.F., Mitra, R., Alberdi, P., Villar, M., de la Fuente, J. 2013. Reciprocal regulation of NF-kB (Relish) and Subolesin in the tick vector, Ixodes scapularis PLoS ONE 8(6): e65915.
7. Anaplasma phagocytophilum inhibe la apoptosis y promueve la reorganización del citoesqueleto para la infección de células de garrapata
Anaplasma phagocytophilum causes human granulocytic anaplasmosis. Infection with this zoonotic pathogen affects gene expression in both vertebrate host and the tick vector, Ixodes scapularis. Here, we identified new genes, including spectrin alpha chain or alpha-fodrin (CG8) and voltage-dependent anion-selective channel or mitochondrial porin (T2), that are involved in A. phagocytophilum infection/multiplication and the tick cell response to infection. The pathogen downregulated the expression of CG8 in tick salivary glands and T2 in both the gut and salivary glands to inhibit apoptosis as a mechanism to subvert host cell defenses and increase infection. In the gut, tick response to infection through CG8 upregulation was used by the pathogen to increase infection due to cytoskeleton rearrangement that is required for pathogen infection. These results increased our understanding of the role of tick genes during A. phagocytophilum infection and multiplication and demonstrated that the pathogen uses similar strategies to establish infection in both vertebrate and invertebrate hosts.
Mitochondrially-induced apoptosis pathway showing the effect of A. phagocytophilum infection on reducing T2 levels which results in the inhibition of tick cell apoptosis.
Ayllón, N., Villar, M., Busby, A.T., Kocan, K.M., Blouin, E.F., Bonzón-Kulichenko, E., Galindo, R.C., Mangold, A.J., Alberdi, P., Pérez de la Lastra, J.M., Vázquez, J., de la Fuente, J. 2013. Anaplasma phagocytophilum inhibits apoptosis and promotes cytoskeleton rearrangement for infection of tick cells. Infection and Immunity 81: 2415-2425.
8. Vacunas para ectoparásitos: control de vectores artrópodos y patógenos transmitidos por garrapatas
Diseases transmitted by arthropod vectors such as mosquitoes, ticks and sand flies greatly impact human and animal health and therefore their control is important for the eradication of vector-borne diseases (VBD). Vaccination is an environmentally friendly alternative for vector control that allows control of several VBD by targeting their common vector. The discovery of new candidate vaccine antigens for the control of vector infestations and pathogen infection and transmission requires the development of effective screening platforms and algorithms that allow the analysis and validation of data produced by systems biology approaches to the study of vector-host-pathogen interactions. Our results have suggested that subolesin (SUB) and its ortholog in insects, akirin (AKR) are good candidate antigens for the control of arthropod vector infestations and pathogen infection. New screening platforms have also discovered new candidate protective antigens. The effect of vaccination on different hosts, vector species, developmental stages and vector-borne pathogen infections demonstrated the feasibility of developing universal vaccines for the control of multiple vector infestations and for reduction of some VBD . Vaccines that affect both vector infestations and pathogen transmission could be used to vaccinate human and animal populations at risk and reservoir species to reduce host exposure to ectoparasites while reducing the number of infected ectoparasites and their vectorial capacity for pathogens that affect human and animal health worldwide.
The major challenges in vaccinomics are data integration analysis after systems biology approaches to the study of tick-host-pathogen interactions and the development of algorithms for the identification of tick protective antigens. Vaccine trials for validation of candidate vaccines are also a limiting step due to time and funding needed to complete these studies. Figure from de la Fuente & Merino. Vaccine 2013, 31: 5923-5929.
de la Fuente, J., Merino, O. 2013. Vaccinomics, the new road to tick vaccines. Vaccine 31: 5923-5929.
de la Fuente, J., Moreno-Cid, J.A., Galindo, R.C., Almazán, C., Kocan, K.M., Merino, O., Pérez de la Lastra, J.M., Estrada-Peña, A., Blouin, E.F. 2013. Subolesin/Akirin vaccines for the control of arthropod vectors and vector-borne pathogens. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases 60 (Suppl. 2): 172-178.
Moreno-Cid, J.A., Pérez de la Lastra, J.M., Villar, M., Jiménez, M., Pinal, R., Estrada-Peña, A., Alarcón, P., Delacour, S., Oropeza, V., Ruiz, I., Molina, R., Lucientes, J., Prudencio, C.R., Galindo, R.C., Almazán, C., Nijhof, A.M., Mangold, A.J., Gortázar, C., de la Fuente, J. 2013. Control of multiple arthropod vector infestations with subolesin/akirin vaccines. Vaccine 31: 1187-1196.
Havlíková, S., Ličková, M., Ayllón, N., Roller, L., Kazimírová, M., Slovák,M., Moreno-Cid, J.A., Pérez de la Lastra, J.M., Klempa, B., de la Fuente, J. 2013. Immunization with recombinant subolesin does not reduce tick infection with tick-borne encephalitis virus nor protect mice against disease. Vaccine 31: 1582-1589.
Merino, M., Antunes, S., Mosqueda, J., Moreno-Cid, J.A., Pérez de la Lastra, J.M., Rosario-Cruz, R., Rodríguez, S., Domingos, A., de la Fuente, J. 2013. Vaccination with proteins involved in tick-pathogen interactions reduces vector infestations and pathogen infection. Vaccine 31: 5889-5896.
9. Descubriendo los mecanismos responsables de la eficacia de la vacunación frente a garrapatas
Tick infestations affect human and animal health worldwide and economically impact cattle production in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Vaccines containing the recombinant R. microplus BM86 gut antigen were developed and commercialized to induce an immunological protection in cattle against tick infestations. These vaccines demonstrated that tick control by vaccination is cost-effective, reduces environmental contamination and prevents the selection of drug resistant ticks that result from repeated acaricide applications. The protection elicited by BM86-containing vaccines against tick infestations is mediated by a collaborative action between the complement system and IgG antibodies. The efficacy of the vaccination with BM86 and other tick antigens is always higher for R. annulatus than against R. microplus, suggesting that tick genetic and/or physiological factors may affect tick vaccine efficacy. These factors may be related to BM86 protein levels or tick physiological processes such as feeding and protein degradation that could result in more efficient antibody-antigen interactions and vaccine efficacy. These results have important implications for tick vaccine research, indicating that not only genetic differences, but also physiological factors may influence tick vaccine efficacy.
Popara, M., Villar, M., Mateos-Hernández, L., Fernández de Mera, I.G., Marina, A., del Valle, M., Almazán, C., Domingos, A., de la Fuente, J. 2013. Lesser protein degradation machinery correlates with higher BM86 tick vaccine efficacy in Rhipicephalus annulatus when compared to R. microplus. Vaccine 31: 4728-4735.
Hajdušek, O., Šíma, R., Ayllón, N., Jalovecká, M., Perner, J., de la Fuente, J., Kopáček, P. 2013. Interaction of the tick immune system with transmitted pathogens. Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology 3: 26.
Ben Said, M., Galai, Y., Ben Ahmed, M., Gharbi, M., de la Fuente, J., Jedidi, M., Darghouth, M.A. 2013. Hd86 mRNA expression profile in Hyalomma scupense life stages, could it contribute to explain anti-tick vaccine effect discrepancy between adult and immature instars? Veterinary Parasitology 198: 258-263.
Course of epidemiology
Both have a week-long course of specialization in epidemiology and disease control shared with wildlife which consists of two parts, an descriptive and other applied;
Reproductive biology group in 2010
ANTIGONE at IREC project
Sampling for TB surveillance in wild boar
As scientists, we have the moral duty to contribute to making a better society. Make available to society and market innovation and the results derived from our research is a way to achieve this goal of social responsibility.
The creation of a spin-off It responds to the need of the market's developments intended to solve the real problems the business sector faces which and for which r & d can carry solutions. Our developments are divided into three main areas, aimed at different sectors.
As part of our research results transfer to the private sector and society in general, we offer several services, all of them related to the area of animal reproduction.